The main source of information for the Lakehead Finns project has been Michel S. Beaulieu’s Labour at the Lakehead: Ethnicity, Socialism, and Politics, 1900-35 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011). However, it is based on information found in various archival collections from across Canada. The most significant is the Lakehead University Library Archives, which contains the Finlandia Club Collection and the Thunder Bay Finnish-Historical Society Collection.
The other main archive used is Library and Archives of Canada, which houses the records of the Finnish Organization of Canada fonds, Finnish Association of Port Arthur fonds, the Community Party of Canada fonds, and the Communist International fonds. Extremely valuable were also records relating to the Canadian Security Intelligence Service and Royal Canadian Mounted Police records. Various collections held at the Archives of Ontario, the City of Thunder Bay Archives, and Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society were also used.
A number of other works have informed the Lakehead Finns website project and provide excellent background and additional reading on the Finnish-Canadian experience and the region’s history.
Letters from Karelia. Directed by Kelly Saxberg. National Film Board of Canada, 2004.
Under the Red Star. Directed by Kelly Saxberg. Shebafilms, 2011.
Main Serials and Newspapers
Canadan Uutiset (Finnish-language)
Fort William Daily Times-Journal
Fort William Morning Herald
Industrialisti (Finnish Language)
Metsätyöläinen (Finnish Language)
Port Arthur Daily News
Port Arthur News-Chronicle
Thunder Bay Chronicle-Journal
Työkansa (Finnish language)
Wage-Earner (Fort William)
Avery, Donald. “Dangerous Foreigners”: European Immigrant Workers and Labour Radicalism in Canada, 1896-1932. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1979.
Avery, Donald. Reluctant Host: Canada’s Response to Immigrant Workers, 1896-1994. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1995.
Beasley, Thomas F. “The 1909 Freight Handlers’ Strike: Col. Sam Steele Searches Strikers for Guns.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 17 (1989): 18-20.
Beaulieu, Michel S., ed. Essays in Northwestern Ontario Working Class History: Thunder Bay and Its Environs. Thunder Bay: Lakehead University Centre for Northern Studies, 2008.
Beaulieu, Michel S. “Reacting to the Workers’ Revolt: The Lakehead and the Winnipeg General Strike.” Left History 14:2 (2009): 18-32.
Beaulieu, Michel S., and Chris Southcott. North of Superior: An Illustrated History of Northwestern Ontario. Toronto: James Lorimer, 2010.
Campbell, Peter. “The Cult of Spontaneity: Finnish-Canadian Bushworkers and the Industrial Workers of the World in Northern Ontario, 1919-1934.” Labour/Le Travail 41 (Spring 1998): 117-46.
Canada Suomalainen Sosialistijärjeston Ensimmäisen Edustajakokouksen Pöytäkirja, Port Arthuissa, Ont. Port Arthur: Työkansa Publishing, 1914.
Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö 24 Vuotta. Sudbury: Vapaus Publishing, 1936.
Chochla, Mark., ed. “Tulio Mior, Bushworker and Labour Leader.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 28 (2000): 23-50.
Dahlie, Jorgen, and Tissa Fernando, eds. Ethnicity, Power, and Politics in Canada. Toronto: Methuen, 1981.
Dunk, Thomas W. It’s A Working Man’s Town: Male Working-Class Culture. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1991; reprinted 1994.
Eklund, William. Builders of Canada: History of the Finnish Organization of Canada, 1911-1971. Translated by Vappu Tyyskä. Toronto: Finnish Organization of Canada, 1987.
Eklund, William. “The Formative Years of the Finnish Organization of Canada.” In Finnish Diaspora I: Canada, South America, Africa, Australia and Sweden, edited by Michael G. Karni. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1981.
Ganz, A. Harding. “The German Expedition to Finland, 1918.” Military Affairs 44, no. 2 (April 1980): 84-91.
Harpelle, Ronald, Varpu Lindström, and Alexis Pogorelskin, eds. Karelian Exodus: Finnish Communities in North America and Soviet Karelia during the Depression Era. Beaverton, ON: Aspasia Books, 2004.
Hatton, C. Nathan. Rugged Game: Community, Culture, and Wrestling at the Lakehead to 1933. Thunder Bay: Northern Studies Press, 2012.
Hodgson, John. Communism in Finland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.
Iacovetta, Franca, with Paula Draper and Robert Ventresca, eds. A Nation of Immigrants: Women, Workers, and Communities in Canadian History, 1840s-1960s. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.
Jewell, Gary. The History of the IWW in Canada. Chicago: Industrial Workers of the World, 1975.
Jussila, Osmo. Maakunnasta valtioksi: Sumomen valtion synty. Helsinki: WSOY, 1978.
Jussila, Osmo. “Die russische Reichsgesetzgeburng in Finnland in den Jahren 1809-1898.” Jahrbücher für Geshichte Osteuropas 33 (1985): 345-65.
Jussila, Osmo, Seppo Hentilä, and Jukka Nevakivi. Suomen poliittinen historia. Helsinki: WSOY, 2000.
Karni, Michael G. Finnish Diaspora I: Canada, South America, Africa, Australia, and Sweden. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1981.
Karni, Michael G. Finnish Diaspora II: United States. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1981.
Karni, Michael G., Matti E. Kraups, and Douglas J. Ollila Jr., eds. The Finnish Experience in the Western Great Lakes Region: New Perspectives. Turku, Finland: Institute for Migration Studies, 1975.
Kealey, Gregory S. “State Repression of Labour and the Left in Canada, 1914-1920: The Impact of the First World War.” Canadian Historical Review 7, no. 3 (September 1993): 281-314.
Kealey, Gregory S., and Whitaker, Reg, eds., The RCMP Security Bulletins: The Depression Years, Part I, 1933-34. St. John’s: Canadian Committee on Labour History, 1993.
Kealey, Gregory S., eds. The RCMP Security Bulletins: The Depression Years, Part II, 1935. St. John’s: Canadian Committee on Labour History, 1995.
Kealey, Gregory S., eds. The RCMP Security Bulletins: The Early Years, 1919-29. St. John’s: Canadian Committee on Labour History, 1994.
Kero, Reino. Migration from Finland to North America in the Years Between the United States Civil War and the First World War. Turku: Institute for Migration Studies, 1974.
Kostiainen, Auvo. The Forging of Finnish-American Communism, 1917-1924: A Study in Ethnic Radicalism. Turku, Finland: Turun Yliopisto, 1978.
Kouhi, Christine. “Labour and Finnish Immigration to Thunder Bay: 1876-1914.” Lakehead University Review 9, no. 1 (Spring 1976): 41-55.
Leier, Mark. Where the Fraser River Flows: The Industrial Workers of the World in British Columbia. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1990.
Lindström, Varpu. Defiant Sisters: A Social History of Finnish Immigrant Women in Canada, 2nd ed. Beaverton, ON: Aspasia Books, 2003.
Lindström, Varpu. The Finns in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1985.
MacDowell, Laurel Sefton. Renegade Lawyer: The Life of J.L. Cohen. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.
MacDowell, Laurel Sefton. “The Mysterious Deaths at Onion Lake.” Beaver (April/May 1995): 32-34.
Manley, John. “Canadian Communists, Revolutionary Unionism and the ‘Third Period’: The Workers’ Unity League, 1929-1935.” Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, New Series 5 (1994): 167-94.
Mauro, Joseph M. A History of Thunder Bay. Thunder Bay: City of Thunder Bay, 1981.
McCormack, A. Ross. Reformers, Rebels, and Revolutionaries: The Western Canadian Radical Movement, 1899-1919. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977.
McKay, Ian. “For a New Kind of History: A Reconnaissance of 100 Years of Canadian Socialism.” Labour/Le Travail 46 (Fall 2000): 69-125.
McKay, Ian. Reasoning Otherwise: Leftists and the People’s Enlightenment in Canada, 1890– 1920. Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 2008.
McKay, Ian. Rebels, Reds, Radicals: Rethinking Canada’s Left History. Toronto: Between the Lines Press, 2005.
McKay, Ian. “The Liberal Order Framework: A Prospectus for a Reconnaissance of Canadian History.” Canadian Historical Review 81, no. 3 (September 2000): 617-45.
Metsaranta, Marc. Project Bay Street: Activities of Finnish-Canadians in Thunder Bay before 1915. Thunder Bay: Finnish Canadian Historical Society, 1989.
Morrison, Jean. “Cobalt Agitators Played a Part in Lakehead Labour Battles.” Highgrader Magazine (Christmas 2005): 22-23.
Morrison, Jean. “Colbalt Agitators Stir Up Lakehead Union Interest.” Highgrader Magazine (Fall 2005): 24-26.
Morrison, Jean. “Ethnicity and Class Consciousness: British, Finnish, and South European Workers at the Canadian Lakehead before World War 1.” Lakehead University Review 9, no. 1 (1976): 55-65.
Morrison, Jean. “Frederick Urry, Architect: The Wage-Earner’s Advocate.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 14 (1986): 8-22.
Morrison, Jean. “Labour in Fort William and Port Arthur, 1903-1913.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 1 (1973): 23-30.
Morrison, Jean. Labour Pains: Thunder Bay’s Working Class in Canada’s Wheat Boom Era. Thunder Bay: Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, 2009.
Otter, W.D. Internment Operations, 1914-1920. Ottawa: n.p., 1921.
Paivo, Aku. Canadan Suomalainsen Sosialisti jarjeston Ensimmainen Edustaja-Kokouksen Poytakirja. Port Arthur: Työkansan Kirjapaino, 1914.
Pilli, Arja. The Finnish-Language Press in Canada, 1901-1939: A Study in the History of Ethnic Journalism. Turku, Finland: Institute for Migration Studies,1982.
Piovesana, Roy. Robert J. Manion: Member of Parliament for Fort William, 1917-1935. Thunder Bay: Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, 1990.
Polvinen, Tuomo. Valtakunta ja rajamaa: N. I. Bobrikov Sumomen kenraalikuvernöö 1898-1904. Helsinki: WSOY, 1984.
Puntila, LA. The Political History of Finland, 1809-1966, translated by David Miller. Helsinki: Otava Publishing, 1974.
Radforth, Ian. Bushworkers and Bosses: Logging in Northern Ontario 1900-1980. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.
Raffo, Peter. “Oral Witness versus Documentary Evidence: The Case of Rosvall and Voutilainen.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 29 (2001): 3-34.
Rasporich, A.W. “Ethnicity in Lakehead Politics, 1900-1930.” Polyphony 9, no. 2 (1987): 61-66.
Rasporich, A.W. “Twin City Ethnopolitics: Urban Rivalry, Ethnic Radicalism and Assimilation in the Lakehead, 1900-1970.” Urban History Review/Revue d’histoire urbaine 18, no. 3 (February 1990): 210-30.
Ratz, David Karl. “Aid to Civil Power: The 96th ‘Lakehead Superior Regiment’ 1909 and 1912.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 19 (1991): 51-64.
Repo, Satu. “Lakehead in the Thirties, a Labour Militant Remembers.” This Magazine 13, no. 3 (July/August 1979): 42-43.
Repo, Satu. “Rosvall and Voutilainen: Two Union Men Who Never Died.” Labour/Le Travail 8/9 (Autumn/Spring 1981/82): 79-102.
Roberts, Barbara. Whence They Came: Deportation from Canada, 1900-1935. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1988.
Ross, Gerald. “Fort William’s Enemy Alien ‘Problem’ during the First World War.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 22 (1994): 1-22.
Saarinen, Oiva W. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: A Historical Geography of the Finns in the Sudbury Area. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1993.
Sangster, Joan. Dreams of Equality: Women on the Canadian Left, 1920-1950. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1989.
Sangster, Joan. “Finnish Women in Ontario, 1890-1930.” Polyphony 3 (1981): 46-54.
Sangster, Joan. “The Communist Party and the Woman Question, 1922-1929.” Labour/Le Travail 15 (Spring 1985): 25-56.
Scollie, F.B. “Louis Lawrence Peltier (1853-1939): Railway Labour Leader, Mayor of Fort William 1909-10.” Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records 32 (2004): 10-30.
Tester, Jim, ed. Sports Pioneers: A History of the Finnish-Canadian Amateur Sports Federation 1906-1986. Sudbury: Alerts AC Historical Committee, 1986.
Thompson, Fred. The IWW: Its First Fifty Years (1905-1955): The History of an Effort to Organize the Working Class. Chicago: Industrial Workers of the World, 1955.
Tolvanen, Ahti. Finntown: A Perspective on Urban Integration. Port Arthur Finns in the Inter-war Period: 1918-1939. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 1985.
Tolvanen, Ahti. “Population Development of Finns in Port Arthur.” Polyphony 9, no. 2 (1987): 43-45.
Tommila, Päiviö. Suuri adressi. Helsinki: WSOY, 1999.
Tronrud, Thorold J. Guardians of Progress: Boosters and Boosterism in Thunder Bay, 1870-1914. Thunder Bay: Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, 1993.
Tronrud, Thorold J., and A. Ernest Epp, eds. Thunder Bay: From Rivalry to Unity. Thunder Bay: Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, 1995.
Upton, Anthony F. The Finnish Revolution, 1917-1918. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.
Various, A Century of Sport in the Finnish Community of Thunder Bay. Thunder Bay: Northwestern Ontario Sports Hall of Fame/Thunder Bay Finnish Canadian Historical Society, 2012.
Virtanen, Keijo. Settlement or Return? Finnish Emigrants (1860-1920). Helsinki: Migration Institute, 1979.
Wilson, J. Donald. “Matti Kurikka and A.B. Mäkelä: Socialist Thought among Finns in Canada, 1900-1932.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 10, no. 2 (1978): 9-21.
Wilson, J. Donald. “The Finnish Organisation of Canada, the ‘Language Barrier,’ and the Assimilation Process.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 9, no. 2 (1977): 107-16.
Wilson, J. Donald and Jorgen Dahlie. “Introduction.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 10, no. 2 (1978): 1-8.
Yrjö, Ravio. Kanadan Suomalaisten Historia, vol. 1. Sudbury: n.p., 1979.
Yuzyk, Paul. Ukrainians in Manitoba: A Social History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1953.